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Old 06-13-2018 , 08:28 AM     Odysseusa est actuellement connect  search   Quote  
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ZTE, initially founded as Zhongxing Semiconductor Co., Ltd in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, in 1985, was incorporated by a group of investors associated with China's Ministry of Aerospace Industry.[8][9][not in citation given (See discussion.)] In March 1993, Zhongxing Semiconductor changed its name to Zhongxing New Telecommunications Equipment Co., Ltd with capital of RMB 3 million, and created a new business model as a "state-owned and private-operating" economic entity. Ties to the state notwithstanding, the firm evolved into the publicly traded ZTE Corporation, having made an initial public offering (IPO) on the Shenzhen stock exchange in 1997 and another on the Hong Kong stock exchange in December 2004.[9]

While the company initially profited from domestic sales,[10] it vowed to use proceeds of its 2004 Hong Kong IPO to further expand R&D, overseas sales to developed nations, and overseas production.[11] Making headway in the international telecom market in 2006, it took 40% of new global orders for CDMA networks[12] topping the world CDMA equipment market by number of shipments.[13] That same year also saw ZTE find a customer in the Canadian Telus[14][non-primary source needed] and membership in the Wi-Fi Alliance.[15] More customers in developed nations soon followed Telus' lead, and in 2007 ZTE sold to UK's Vodafone, Spain's Telefonica, and the Australian Telstra,[14] in addition to garnering the greatest number of CDMA contracts globally.[16] By 2008 ZTE had achieved a global customer base, with sales in 140 countries.[14]

By 2009, the company had become the third-largest vendor of GSM telecom equipment worldwide, and about 20% of all GSM gear sold throughout the world that year was ZTE branded.[17] As of 2011 it holds around 7% of the key 3GPP Long Term evolution patents[18] and that same year launched the world's first smartphone with dual GPS/GLONASS navigation, MTS 945. ZTE claims to devote 10% of its annual revenue to research and development, producing patents and utility licenses at a rapid pace.[19][20] ZTE has filed 48,000 patents globally, with more than 13,000 granted. In two consecutive years (2011 and 2012), ZTE was granted the largest number of patent applications globally,[21] which is a first for a Chinese company.[22]

U.S. sanctions and export ban Edit
In March 2017, ZTE pleaded guilty to illegally exporting U.S. technology to Iran and North Korea in violation of trade sanctions, and was fined a total of US$1.19 billion by the U.S. Department of Commerce. It was the largest-ever U.S. fine for export control violations.[23][24]

ZTE was allowed to continue working with U.S. companies, provided that it properly reprimand all employees involved in the violations. However, the Department of Commerce found that ZTE had violated these terms and made false statements regarding its compliance, having fired only 4 senior officials and still providing bonuses to 35 other employees involved in the violations. On 16 April 2018, the Department of Commerce banned U.S. companies from providing exports to ZTE for seven years.[25][26][27]

At least 25% of components on recent ZTE smartphones originate from the U.S.; the ban prevents ZTE from using common Qualcomm processors, and certified Android devices with Google Mobile Services software.[28][29] An analyst stated that it would take a significant amount of effort for ZTE to redesign its products as to not use U.S.-originated components.[30]

On 9 May 2018, ZTE announced that, although it was "actively communicating with the relevant U.S. government departments" to reverse the export ban, it had suspended its "major operating activities" (including manufacturing) and trading of its shares.[29][31] On May 13 2018, U.S. president Donald Trump stated that he would be working with Chinese president Xi Jinping to reverse the ban.[32] On 7 June 2018, U.S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross announced ZTE must pay a $1 billion fine, and place an additional $400 million in suspended penalty money in escrow, before it will be removed from the Denied Persons List.[33]

It has been argued that the export ban is being used as leverage by the United States as part of an ongoing trade dispute with China.[34][35]

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