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Old 06-13-2018 , 09:52 AM     Odysseusa est dconnect  search   Quote  
First Chinese domination of Vietnam (111 BC–39 AD) Chinese incursions, followed by Chinese victory in the Han-Nanyue War (111 BC), established Chinese rule in Vietnam. This was briefly interrupted by the revolt of the Trưng Sisters (40–43 AD).

Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43–544) ended by the revolt of Lý Nam Đế who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty. This secured 60 years of independence for Vietnam, but following regime change and consolidation of power in China, the new Sui dynasty sent an overwhelmingly large army south to reestablish control over northern Vietnam in 602.

Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (602–938) starting with the peaceful abdication by Lý's successor in the face of overwhelming Chinese numbers, and marked by entrenchment of mandarin administration. The period concluded with the internal collapse of China's Tang dynasty and Ngô Quyền's destruction of the Southern Han armada at the naval Battle of Bach Dang River (938).

Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam (1407–1427) a 20-year occupation by the Ming dynasty army, from Vietnamese defeat in the Ming–Hồ War (1406–1407) to Vietnamese rebellion and Lê Lợi's defeat of the Chinese at the Battle of Tốt Động – Chúc Động and Battle of Chi Lăng - Xương Giang (1427).
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Old 06-13-2018 , 10:08 AM     Odysseusa est dconnect  search   Quote  
Nationalism Edit
The Trưng Sisters are highly revered in Vietnam, as they led the first resistance movement against the occupying Chinese after 247 years of domination. Many temples are dedicated to them, and a yearly holiday in February to commemorate their deaths is observed by many Vietnamese. A central district in Hanoi called the Hai Bà Trưng District is named after them, as are numerous large streets in major cities[11] and many schools.

The stories of the Trưng Sisters and of another famous woman warrior, Lady Triệu, are cited by some historians[by whom?] as hints that Vietnamese society before sinicization was a matriarchal one, where there are no obstacles for women in assuming leadership roles.

Even though the Trưng Sisters' revolt against the Chinese was almost 2000 years ago, its legacy in Vietnam remains.[12] The two sisters are considered to be a national symbol in Vietnam. They represent Vietnam's independence. They are often depicted as two women riding two giant war elephants. Many times, they are seen leading their followers into battle against the Chinese. The Trưng sisters were more than two sisters that gave their life up for their country, they are powerful symbols of Vietnamese resistance and freedom.

During APEC Vietnam 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump recalled the story of the Trưng Sisters as the symbol of Vietnamese heroism and independence[13].

Temples Edit
Temples to the Trưng Sisters or "Hai Bà Trưng Temples" are found from as early as the end of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam.[14] The best known Hai Bà Trưng Temple is in Hanoi near Hoàn Kiếm Lake.[15][16] Other Hai Bà Trưng temples are found in Mê Linh District (Vĩnh Phúc Province), Phúc Thọ District (Hà Tây Province) and Hoàng Hoa Thám Street, Bình Thạnh District, Ho Chi Minh City.

Women's status Edit
One reason for the defeat is the desertion by rebels because they did not believe they could win under a woman's leadership.[17] The fact that women were in charge was blamed as a reason for the defeat by historical Vietnamese texts in which the historians ridiculed and mocked men because they did nothing while "mere girls", whom they viewed with revulsion, took up the banner of revolt.[18] The historical poem containing the phrase "mere girls", which related the revolt of the Trung Sisters while the men did nothing, was not intended to praise women nor view war as women's work, as it has been wrongly interpreted.[19][20] And though the popular saying "When the enemy is at the gate, the woman goes out fighting" has been cited as evidence of women's stature,[21] the actual phrase in Vietnamese is "Giac den nha, dan ba cung danh", which means that fighting in war is inappropriate for women and that it is only when the situation is so desperate that war has spread to their home that women should enter the war.[22][23]

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