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?Chapter Outline
I. Overview of Rogers's Person-Centered Theory Although Carl Rogers is optimal known as being the founder of client-centered therapy, he also developed an important theory of personality that underscores his strategy to therapy.
II. Biography of Carl Rogers Carl Rogers was born into a devoutly religious family inside a Chicago suburb in 1902. After the family moved to the farm near Chicago, Carl became interested in scientific farming and learned to appreciate the scientific method. When he graduated from the University of Wisconsin, Rogers intended to become a minister, but he gave up that notion and completed a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1931. In 1940, after nearly a dozen years absent from an academic life working as a clinician, he took a position at Ohio State University. Later, he held positions for the University of Chicago and then the University of Wisconsin. In 1964, he moved to California where he helped found the Center for Studies from the Person. He died in 1987 at age 85.
III. Person-Centered Theory Rogers carefully crafted his person-centered theory of personality to meet his private demands for a structural design that could explain and predict outcomes of client-centered therapy. However, the theory has implications far beyond the therapeutic setting. A. Elementary Assumptions Person-centered theory rests on two elementary assumptions: (1) the formative tendency, which states that all matter, the two organic and inorganic, tends to evolve from simpler to alot more complex sorts, and (two) an actualizing tendency, which suggests that all living things, this includes humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials. However, in order for people (or plants and animals) to become actualized, certain identifiable conditions must be current. For a person, these conditions include a relationship with another person who is genuine, or congruent, and who demonstrates extensive acceptance and empathy for that person. B. The Self and Self-Actualization A feeling of self or personal identity begins to emerge during infancy, and, once established, it allows for a person to strive toward self-actualization, which is known as a subsystem with the actualization tendency and refers to the tendency to actualize the self as perceived in awareness. The self has two subsystems: (1) the self-concept, which comes with all those aspects of one's identity that are perceived in awareness, and (two) the ideal self, or our check out of our self as we would like to be or aspire to be. Once formed, the self concept tends to resist change, and gaps in between it along with the ideal self result in incongruence and numerous ranges of psychopathology.
C. Awareness People are aware of each their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness might need not be accurate or in a higher stage. Rogers saw people as having experiences on three amounts of awareness: (1) those that are symbolized below the threshold of awareness and are either ignored or denied, that's, subceived, or not allowed into the self-concept; (two) those that are distorted or reshaped to fit it into an present self-concept; and (3) those that are consistent with the self-concept and thus are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure. Any have not consistent with the self-concept-even positive experiences-will be distorted or denied. D. Needs The two general human needs are maintenance and enhancement, but people also need to have positive regard and self-regard. Maintenance needs include those for food, air, and safety, however they also include our tendency to resist change and to preserve our self-concept as it is. Enhancement needs include needs to grow and to realize one's whole human potential. As awareness of self emerges, an infant begins to obtain positive regard from another person-that is, to be loved or accepted. People naturally value those experiences that satisfy their needs for positive regard, but, unfortunately, this value now and then becomes a whole lot more powerful than the reward they acquire for meeting their organismic needs. This sets up the condition of incongruence, which is skilled when primary organismic needs are denied or distorted in favor of needs to be loved or accepted. As a result of experiences with positive regard, people grow the will be needing for self-regard, which they acquire only after they perceive that someone else cares for them and values them. Once established, however, self-regard becomes autonomous and no longer dependent on another's continuous positive evaluation. E. Conditions of Worth Most people are not unconditionally accepted. Instead, they acquire conditions of worth; that is definitely, they actually feel that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions established by others. F. Psychological Stagnation Once the organismic self along with the self-concept are at variance with a particular another, a person may have incongruence, which contains vulnerability, threat, defensiveness, and even disorganization. The greater the incongruence in between self-concept and also organismic undergo, the increased vulnerable that person becomes. Anxiety exists whenever the person becomes dimly aware within the discrepancy among organismic practical knowledge and self-concept, whereas threat is encountered whenever the person becomes far more clearly aware of this incongruence. To prevent incongruence, people react with defensiveness, typically within the sorts of distortion and denial. With distortion, people misinterpret an adventure so that it fits into their self-concept; with denial, people refuse to help the know-how into awareness. When people's defenses fail to operate properly, their behavior becomes disorganized or psychotic. With disorganization, people often behave consistently with their organismic practical knowledge and from time to time in accordance with their shattered self-concept.
IV. Psychotherapy For client-centered psychotherapy to be effective, certain conditions are necessary: A vulnerable client must have contact of some duration using a counselor who is congruent, and who demonstrates unconditional positive regard and listens with empathy to your client. The client must in turn perceive the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy for the therapist. If these conditions are current, then the procedure of therapy will take spot and certain predictable outcomes will result. A. Conditions Three conditions are crucial to client-centered therapy, and Rogers called them the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic growth. The for starters is counselor congruence, or a therapist whose organismic experiences are matched by an awareness and by the ability and willingness to openly express these feelings. Congruence is added primary than another two conditions due to the fact it is definitely a relatively stable characteristic in the therapist, whereas one other two conditions are minimal to your targeted therapeutic relationship. Unconditional positive regard exists if the therapist accepts the client without conditions or qualifications. Empathic listening is the therapist's ability to perception the feelings of the client and also to communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his or her world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation. B. Strategy Rogers saw the strategy of therapeutic change as taking destination in seven stages: (1) clients are unwilling to communicate anything about themselves; (two) they discuss only external events and other people; (3) they begin to talk about themselves, but continue to as an object; (four) they discuss solid emotions that they have felt while in the past; (5) they begin to express existing feelings; (6) they freely enable into awareness those experiences that ended up previously denied or distorted; and (7) they working experience irreversible change and growth. C. Outcomes When client-centered therapy is successful, clients become much more congruent, less defensive, a whole lot more open to expertise, plus much more realistic. The gap among their ideal self and their true self narrows and, as a consequence, clients have less physiological and psychological tension. Finally, clients' interpersonal relationships improve basically because they are further accepting of self and others.
V. The Person of Tomorrow Rogers was vitally interested while in the psychologically healthy person, called the "fully functioning person" or the "person of tomorrow." Rogers listed seven characteristics in the person of tomorrow. The person of tomorrow (1) is able to adjust to change, (two) is open to working experience, (3) is able to live fully inside of the moment, (four) is able to have harmonious relations with others, (5) is alot more integrated with no artificial boundaries involving conscious and unconscious processes, (6) has a simple trust of human nature, and (7) enjoys a greater richness in life. The factors have implications each with the individual and for society.
VI. Philosophy of Science Rogers agreed with Maslow that scientists must care about and be involved with the phenomena they study which psychologists should limit their objectivity and precision to their methodology, not to the generation of hypotheses or to the communication of research findings.
VII. The Chicago Study When he taught for the University of Chicago, Rogers, along with colleagues and graduate students, conducted a sophisticated and complex study over the effectiveness of psychotherapy. A. Hypotheses This study tested four broad hypotheses. As a consequence of therapy (1) clients will become way more aware of their feelings and experiences, (two) the gap in between the real self and then the ideal self will lessen; (3) clients' behavior will become a great deal more socialized and mature; and (four) clients will become each a lot more self-accepting and a lot more accepting of others. B. Method Participants had been adults who sought therapy for the University of Chicago counseling center. Experimenters asked fifty percent of these to wait sixty days before receiving therapy even though beginning therapy with the opposite 50 %. Also, they tested a control group of "normals" who were being matched with the therapy group. This control group was also divided into a wait group and also a non-wait group. C. Findings Rogers and his associates found that the therapy group-but not the wait group-showed a lessening for the gap amongst real self and ideal self. They also found that clients who improved during therapy-but not those rated as least improved-showed changes in social behavior, as noted by friends. D. Summary of Benefits Although client-centered therapy was successful in changing clients, it was not successful in bringing them to the amount in the fully functioning persons or even to the stage of "normal" psychological health.
VIII. Related Research Extra not long ago, other researchers have investigated Rogers's facilitative conditions each outdoors therapy and inside therapy. A. Facilitative Conditions Outside the house Therapy Inside United Kingdom, Duncan Cramer has conducted a series of studies investigating the therapeutic qualities of Rogers's facilitative conditions in interpersonal relationships exterior of therapy. Cramer found positive relationships around self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and also the four facilitative conditions that make up the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory-level of regard, unconditionality of regard, congruence, and empathy. Moreover, the direction for the relationship strongly suggested that Rogers's facilitative conditions precede the acquisition of higher concentrations of self-esteem. B. Facilitative Conditions and Couples Therapy In Belgium, Alfons Vansteenwegen (1996) utilised a revised type within the Barrett-Lennard to determine if Rogers's facilitative conditions related to success during couples therapy. He found that client-centered couples therapy can bring about positive changes in couples, which many of these changes lasted for at least seven years after therapy.
IX. Critique of Rogers Rogers's person-centered theory is an individual with the most carefully constructed of all personality theories, and it meets very properly each individual of your six criteria of the useful theory. It rates very huge on internal consistency and parsimony, large on its ability to be falsified and to generate research, and high-average on its ability to organize knowledge and to serve as a guide to the practitioner.
X. Concept of Humanity Rogers believed that humans have the capacity to change and grow-provided that certain necessary and sufficient conditions are existing. Therefore, his theory rates very great on optimism. Additionally, it rates higher on absolutely free choice, teleology, conscious motivation, social influences, as well as the uniqueness in the individual. write my economics essay
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